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Screening Methods

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; a sensitive immunoassay that uses an enzyme linked to an antibody or antigen as a marker for the detection of a specific protein, especially an antigen or antibody.

Sandwich ELISA

A modification of the standard ELISA  in which an antibody bound to capture an antigen or antibody from a solution and a second, enzyme-linked antibody is used to detection.

Western blot

An assay that detects specific proteins within a protein mixture by a multistep process consisting of electrophoresis on a slab gel, transfer of the proteins on the gel to a membrane followed by identification of the specific proteins by antibody staining.

Flow cytometry

A cytometric technique in which cells suspended in a laminar fluid flow one at a time through a focus of exciting light, which is scattered in patterns characteristic to the cells and their components; cells are frequently labeled with fluorescent antibodies so that light is first absorbed and then emitted at altered frequencies. A sensor detecting the scattered or emitted light measures the size and molecular characteristics of individual cells; tens of thousands of cells can be examined per minute and the data gathered is processed by computer.